Rather than preparing for self-rule, the Palestine Mandate and the policies of the mandatory authorities sowed the seeds of the Arab-Israeli conflict. Assess this statement.
In the year 1948 the rule by the British over the area that is currently being occupied by the Israel and the Palestine came to an end and it was hoped that the people within that particular area were now going to rule over themselves (Pappe, 2006). This is the area that was known as the Ottoman Empire and which had to come under the British rule after the First world War because of its role in the same. The British then had been keen on having a safe passage of their goods between them and the Indians through the Suez Canal. Choueiri (2001) notes that the Ottoman Empire had sided with the Central Empire in the course of the First World War who had been fighting against the allied forces which was made Britain among other states. After the defeat of the Ottoman Empire occupants in 1917 the area came to be divided into Palestine, Syria and Lebanon and ruled over by the British and French (Pappe, 2006). The British promised to give the Palestinians independence and also the establishment of a Jewish national region through a declaration with the then administrators of the bigger region.
With the Palestine Mandate it was hoped that the people within the area occupied by the Palestine and the Israelites will govern themselves as per the articles of the agreement that they had with the British. The Palestine Mandate was none other than a legally recognized commission that was supposed to rule over the region that had been formerly part of the larger Ottoman Empire. This particular mandate was recognized by the League of Nations but it was in effect from the time that it was signed all the way up to and including the time that it ended in May 1948 and it had given Britain powers to continue ruling the southern part of Ottoman from 1923 to 1948 when it expired (Choueiri, 2001). It is this particular mandate that had created two conflicting regions within this bigger area, that is, the Palestine region and the Jewish home that was known as Israel. In not so many words the mandate is the one that created Israel which was to be involved in a number of wars with the surrounding Arab nations.
Tension between the Jews and the Arabs inhabitants of the Ottoman can be traced back to the time when the Jews had been migrating to the area from the European regions. At that time the region had been predominantly occupied by the Arabs. Even though the British were instrumental in the creation of the Jews nation they never admitted to promising either of the parties any land. The situation that had arisen with violence and constant conflicts between the Arab original inhabitants and the newcomers was so delicate that the British did not want to get involved. The idea of consolidating the Jews within one place was thought of as a means of bringing lasting peace but it was so unfortunate that the reverse
Discuss how war was used by Iraq, Israel and the United States as a means to advance their interests in the Middle East.
A majority of nations in recent times and throughout history have had the desire to rule over other nations through forceful occupation. It is no wonder that there have been cases of one nation building up its military might and finally invading another one with the aim of taking over the others territory and in this line of reasoning Iraq, Israel and the United States are no exception when it comes to advancing their interests in the Middle East. Outlined below are accounts of a few wars that the above three have gotten involved in their quest to assert themselves in the Middle East.
Iraq has been involved in a number of wars with other countries in the Middle East mostly the ones perceived to be allies of the Western powers. It has been always seeking to assert itself as the Middle East superpower with an aim of calling the shots in the region. In addition it has wanted to use its military might to be seen as a unifying factor and a friend who will be ready to defend like-minded Arab allies (Halliday, 2005).
According to the Middle East Arab countries they all perceive Israel to be a common enemy. They are always ready to put their own differences aside to team up in fighting Israel. This explains why Israel has gone a step further to develop its military might to among the highest levels in the world. For they know too well that they have to stay ahead of their enemies and in case of any attack from any of these countries it responds very aggressively resulting in more damage than the one caused by any such attack. This is meant to send a signal to these neighbors that it is always ready to defend itself at whatever cost.
The United States has never had any interest in any particular country other than to prevent any of the countries in the Middle East from interfering with the flow of oil from this region. It is one of the heaviest oil consumers in the world and therefore it knows too well that any interference with the flow of oil from the Persian gulf will have an adverse significant effect on its economy. This explains why the US has had to go to war with Libya and Iraq within this region. In addition it has been on the forefront in championing for the use of sanctions against any other country within the region that might be seen to want to interfere with this vital interest.
According to Pappe (2006) the United States and Israel have been great friends specifically because of their common interests in the Middle East. Israel is quite important to the United States in checking any security threats within this region especially by virtue of its location and proximity to the area. Therefore the US will stop at nothing in arming, organizing peace deals between Israel and other countries in the Middle East and in some cases getting involved in the war directly, for example during the Cold War, Israel was used in spying and in checking against the spread of the Eastern political ideologies within the region (Halliday, 2005). The US spends heavily in equipping Israel with all manner of weaponry from the sophisticated missiles, sensors, drones to other advanced electronic systems to be used in the war.
Halliday, F. (2005).The Middle East in International Relations: Power, Politics and Ideology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Ch.6
Pappe, I. (2006) A History of Modern Palestine: Two Peoples One Land, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Ch.9 and Postscript
Choueiri, Y. (2001). Arab Nationalism: A History: Nation and State in the Arab World, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, Ch.6