Social work




Social work

Name of the university:



Name of the instructor:













Answer 1: defining social work has always been a tricky job since long times. People have faced lot of challenges and difficulties in putting up a uniform definition to the social work and segregating it from what is unneeded or nor the part of the social work procedures. These unwanted work procedures are the facts and figures which first challenge a society on a smaller scale and then as it builds up these challenges are faced up by the nation itself. These challenges are usually the combined effects of some political philosophies like the empowerment, social change, and the problem solving. I believe the challenges to the Australian context today are aged care, housing and the welfare system over there. In Australia, the public health facilities are free to all the people over there but the general practitioners ask for bulk bills through the public health system just because of the long waiting lists of the patients. It is generally accepted in Australia that there is a crises in the medical system Australia follows. Unlikely, Australian government has always been encouraging or rather implementing on people to look out for private health facilities providing them tax rebates and all kind of stuff for their own profits and growth. The factors which put an adverse effect on the Australian political landscape are the internal factors. They used to be analyzed with deep concern. The internal factors like health functionaries, welfare department for the aged people and the wellness forums in Australia are the factors which in many ways directly or indirectly is affecting Australia’s political landscape.

Answer 2: Our organization is named “Upanayan”. It is an organization which aims at providing specialized individual education plans to all the children who are suffering from speaking and learning disabilities and residing in the urban slums and their parents earning no more than two dollars a day. Our beneficiaries need to pay only 0.19 US dollars to avail our services. Our organization is an organization which aims at operating globally and has its parent foundation in the Lucknow city of India. Being an organization which has high aims, we define our tasks and long goals in short term realistic and achievable goals and we follow the grand theory of “Taxonomy of social work”. We in our work cycles perform many psycho-social case works; do several well enhanced relationship based practices. We, in order to harness the goals of our organization interact and work directly with children and families in order to have a better intervention during the crises. We have 5 initiatives viz. Pehal, Shiksha, Mumkin, Vidhya, and Lakshmi. Each initiative aims at its well defined goal like Pehal aims at family counselling, Shiksha provides you with a uniform education plan for all, Mumkin serves all special children with IEP (Individual Education Plan) while Vidhya and Lakshmi aims at collaborating with think tanks and the corporate world respectively. This step of ours surely is having a great impact on the society as having a well-designed and researched system of education in 0.19 US dollars per day is no cost.

Answer 3: Psychodynamic concepts (like repression, parent-child relations, our unconscious, resistance, internal conflict, internal working models, regression, self-awareness, etc.) help in doing social worker’s assessments and plan interventions with clients in the following ways-

It helps in bringing a focus on the client which directly or indirectly helps in connecting to the client and motivates them to bring about a change in their life.

This motivates the client to follow a well-defined goal and engaging herself/himself in problem solving and skill training activities. It covers a wide range of activities which enhance the working capability of the client and make him work even more efficiently, it empowers them and more important it brings about a change in them. It brings about knowledge and a sense of empowerment which in many ways enlightens the clients to be more self-reliant and initiates the sparkle of self-awareness in them.

One of the most important and the positive impacts that these make on the client are it provides them with an insight to get themselves engaged in activities or projects which initiate a social change and the aims at the welfare of the community and the society they are inhabitants of.

In my personal experience, I would like to shed light on the changes that I personally have been through. I have seen people who use to send their 6 year old children to teas stalls to earn few pennies for the day. But with the coming of our organization “Upanayan”, they are now the ones who bring their child to their community centers just in order to inculcate in them the virtues of education and now they see their children as next super stars who are not illiterate any more, will never work on wages to survive, will not take their children to work along with them. Rather, they see a well-defined human being in them who have some responsibilities towards the society he is a part of.




Are Children More Socialized Because Of The Internet?











Are Children More Socialized Because Of The Internet?

Name of Student













Nowadays, most of kids aged 2-3 years have familiarized themselves with internet, and playing cell phone and video games. Technology has advanced, and children have acquired lot of knowledge. For instant, my little angel Cindy aged 3years old can operate my phone, and moreover plays play station 3. She takes my phone without my realization and gets to Whatsapp and watches educative videos, and then narrates to me what she has seen with a lot of excitement. Due to watching these videos, her thinking capacity has improved, hence improving her way of talking compared with other kids who have not familiarized themselves with the technology (Mason, 2012). Kids are good in learning new things no matter how small they may appear. It’s therefore a good trend for kids to be more educated through the internet. In other words, this paper holds that children are indeed more socialized through their interaction with the internet. In taking this position, it is worth noting that there are people who hold different opinion; the internet is actually harmful and does not in any way help children in becoming more socialized.

In real sense 80% of teenagers aged 12-17 years are in social media. This is proven by a research done on 2005 by Pew Research Center. This actually represents an increase of 20% over the past 5years down the line. To this end, parents, guardians and policymakers are worried about the effects of getting to the world of information and misinformation has on the kids. Psychologists are about to answer that question (Mason, 2012). Hereby Linda Jackson a psychologist has led a study in Michigan State University which stated that; home internet has a high standard of test scores. Other researchers have stated that, having internet at home has enabled kids to be more independent in learning.

In fact, internet has benefited today’s kids especially those who do not easily catch up with classroom teachings. In other words, it doesn’t just bring to satisfaction of their need to know more about life, but also improves kids’ way of living in an enjoyable way. Thus with technology a kid may gain knowledge at the age of 2-3years of internet study and socializing of which he or she would have spent more than 7-8years of attending sessions in the class so as to acquire this knowledge. Internet is available anytime and in a wide range of areas, and less time consuming. All of the information is available in an easier and in a simple language for one to understand hereby, it brings  satisfaction to the kid’s yearning for knowledge and understanding his world in a wide range, often without any assistant from a teacher.however,its an independent teaching technique which can successfully supplemement sessions experiences.

According to researchers, children who have familiarized themselves with internet, work smarter and make new friends faster compared to those who don’t know how to operate a phone, computer and other electronic devices. However, if this aspect of knowing each other over the internet is taking miles away, it could have detrimental results as outlined below.

Recently the issue of knowing each other in the internet has turned to crime and immoral activities; e.g sexual abuse, pornography, cyber crime and sexual exploitation over the internet. Many sex culprits use the technology as a snare for the victims who are unacquainted and have feeling to socialize with strangers (Howard,  Agarwal, & Hussain, 2011). Teenagers are often victimized when socializing with these potential offenders, and are put off after helping themselves out.

The opponents of this positions when asked the questions, “Can kids really learn more according to how they use the internet through being socialized? Their outright answer is, no.

Most of the kids are addicted to computers, phones and other electronic devices compared to playing on the ground and meeting people (Jurgenson, 2012). Everything that kids are doing these days is attached to their phones and laptops. Chatting with friends in social media and meeting with new friends has given them the first priority than anything else until one have to raise voice on them. When kids are strolling along the streets with each other, you may see them chatting through the phone via sms or even Whatsapp; instead of talking to each other. This has made phones and laptops to be given the first priority than friends who can help them when in need.

In conclusion, despite the criminal activities carried out over the internet and other negative effects of internet; on the hand it has its benefits and shapes up the kid’s behavior, relating to their environment and their fellow kids .through internet their IQ expands in a wide range now and then. More comparably with the television series, internet acts as a role model to the kids in areas of maintaining peace and harmony amongst them, hence abstaining from quarrels, sex and other awkward behaviors in kids. It brings about oneness, generosity and good communication skills among them in different race of the kids.










Jurgenson, N. (2012). When Atoms Meets Bits: Social Media, the Mobile Web and Augmented Revolution. Internet Future, 4, pp. 83-91.

Howard , P.N.,  Agarwal D.S., and Hussain M.M. (2011). When Do States Disconnect Their Digital Networks? Regime Responses to the Political Uses of Social Media. The Communication Review, 14(3), pp. 216-232.

Mason, P. (2012). Why it’s still kicking off everywhere?  Brooklyn: Verso Books.


Answers to the posts/comments – Discussion board


Comment 1: Staffing helps an organization achieve strategic objectives when the right people are hired into the right positions at the right time. As an article states “The most important question for any organization is what type of workforce it will need in order to successfully implement its strategic mission” ( Working in HR you realize an effective staffing model involves planning for and predicting future employment needs which is a proactive approach to staffing instead of being reactive as situations occur. Employers have to be able to make predictions from current trending turnover as to what positions and skill will be needed to backfill positions. Working in Health Care, you get a front row seat on how Health Care reform has changed hospital reimbursements for services. Though this is not the only contributing factor, the change in reimbursement has affected overall financial strength which in turn has affected pay raises and bonuses of employees. This has made it harder to retain top talent and has contributed to an increase in turnover. In an effort to stay ahead and to better predict our employment needs, we had implemented a turnover reporting tool that will show us month to month or year to year why employees are leaving a dept/ our organization and what it cost the recruiting costs will be to replace the employee. This helps us to plan better and to all make it realistic to the managers of the depts. what cost they are incurring from losing employees and the importance of being creative to retain our talented employees. The top three staffing issues I would say organizations are facing today are attracting top talent, retaining talent and succession planning. These are the areas we are working on in my organization and each comes with their own challenges. In an effort to attract even more top talent in the Healthcare industry, we have begun to expand our nursing and Healthcare program relationships with Colleges to have a larger applicant pool. Once we obtain the right fit for a position, after about six months of employment we require the dept. managers to conduct stay interviews. The interviews gives us the perception of our organization, the dept and work experience from what we call a fresh set of eyes. We are better able to understand what makes an employee stay, the reason(s) they may have considered leaving as well as opportunities. With regards to succession planning, there should always be an effective plan in place with potential successors identified to move into leadership roles when the time arises. The organization I currently work for has begun talking more seriously about succession planning due to our aging workforce in key roles. Though employees are now working past retirement age, I feel it is important to have a plan in place for potential successors to be trained in key roles before an individual leaves to allow for a smoother transition when the time arises. Employees want to know there is opportunity for growth within the organization they work for. As an article in Career Builder states ” The most in demand employees are attracted to lucrative benefits, meaning employers have to recognize and incentivize their best talent to stay ahead”  (Lorenz 2014).


Answer: Staffing helps the organization work more efficiently as objectives are made more strategically with right people being sent to the right chairs. Staffing provides you with an option to plan better; it provides you with an ability to retain your talented employees. The top three staffing issues that an organization may undergo would be how to attract top talent, how to retain talent and succession planning. Proper staffing helps you to cope up with all these difficulties and problems.

Comment 2: In my previous class I learned effective ways in which the staffing function can help organizations achieve their strategic objectives. Strategy can consist of determining the labor supply and demand based on the business you are in. Putting together a detailed compendium would assist in knowing what your staffing needs are and how to address them. The acquisition of talented individuals who align with a company’s core values, matching those individuals with jobs that fit skill sets, and having a retention plan are also ways staffing can add to the overall strategy of a company. Working for a tribal company has shown me how important each of these things are. We hire employees based on preference. What this means is when we have a job opening we first interview all Native American applicants. If we determine that no preference applicants meet the job requirements than we can ask for a pool consisting of the remaining applicants. As you can imagine this creates a lot of situations in which an employee is hired for a job that they are not a great match for. You may have someone who is capable of being a cocktail server, but is not very outgoing. Due to the limited applicant pool you may be inclined to go ahead and hire them in hopes they work out. Some will adapt and be fine, but others will struggle and be uncomfortable in that position. This may lead to them quitting, having attendance issues, or job performance issues. All of this may have been avoided if they were hired for a position that matched their skill set. I have also seen problems created on the opposite side of the spectrum. When looking for a specific skilled applicant such as a sous chef, we may be unable to find a qualified Cherokee to take the position. This leads to us hiring out of preference. Our mission “Is to grow the economy of the Cherokee Nation through diversification and create jobs for Cherokee citizens in Oklahoma and other states”. An employee that is not Cherokee may not buy into the core values of the company or feel like an equal part of the success. In this example hiring a talented individual may not work as well as finding and training a Cherokee citizen who will buy into the company’s mission. I have found it to be a double edged sword as I believe there is plenty of cases that justify hiring what would be considered an “Out of preference employee”, but the culture the mission has created may cause them to leave the company at first chance.

After doing more research on current staffing issues I realized that there was way more problem than I was aware of before starting this program. If I had to narrow down three I would say, an aging workforce, talent retention, and a more diverse workforce. As out weekly video illustrates, the Y generation is not interested in learning skill based manufacturing jobs. In chapter three of our book it states that the unemployment rate for iron and steel workers was 21.9% in 2013. Also those projections to 2018 indicate that the service sector is set for growth while manufacturing stays steady and mining and agriculture decline. An article that I linked below illustrates how the workforce is changing in terms of loyalty and job movement. The younger workforce is not as inclined to stay with the same company and is more open to change than the baby boomer generation. This will lead to heavy competition for top performing employees. There is also the continued shift towards a more diverse workforce. As talked about in the “Active or Passive Diversity” section of chapter one. Organizations will have to deal with more diversity, but will they be prepared for the strategy associated with a changing workforce?

Answer: By the help of following proper staffing practices in an organization one can always know the needs and the most optimum way of addressing them. It helps you in doing the ‘lock and key’ sort of allocation of jobs and tasks to the employees bringing the best out of them. This will also help you in reaching the aims of the cultural aims and missions of an organization to the fullest. But there are still some challenges to staffing that can be seen, they are the aging workforce, talent retention and having such a diversified workforce. Addressing these would bring the ultimate best out of it.

Comment 3:  The first role of staffing is to identify whether more manpower is needed and to estimate the requirement needs of the organization.  If there is a need for manpower, staffing would identify the qualities desired of the company and the attributes of the potential employees to determine the best possible fit.  After a potential candidate is found, whether internally or externally, the staffing role would be to train, develop, and motivate the candidate for success in the company. Because staffing is involved in training new/current employees, those that do not measure up to the expectations are let go for performance. In essence, it is essential that an organization has the best possible staffing because it could prove to be cost effective for the company if not done correctly.

Staffing helps an organization achieve their strategic objectives by making sure that the organization is fully staff with qualified workers whose background mirrors the company’s  hiring objectives, goals and missions.  Staffing ensures that the workers are given ongoing training so that the workers are better equipped for the job. With these workers better equipped, staffing helps the organization to become competitive.   By providing qualified workers who have the ability to provide superior performance, staffing can influence the success of the organization.  Another strategic strategy that staffing does is provide managers with training to recognized workers who demonstrates performance traits for other areas of employment.   For instance, at my last job, I was crossed trained for multiple areas of the company.  So, if someone was out, I fulfill the need.  This is an example of how organizations use their workers that are crossed trained to their advantage.

The three staffing issues facing the organization today included: staffing, employment and recruitment.  These are among the most critical HR function areas that contribute to their organization’s business strategies, according to a Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) report released May 28, 2008. When an organization staff personnel, they must be sure that the job description is measurable and that the person they are recruiting have the KSAO’s to be able to perform the job. Then, after they are hired, staffing must determine what other skills the candidate possess to possible fill other vacancy to become productive for the company’s success.  Final, staffing must be sure while recruiting highly qualified candidates that they possess KSAO’s, social skills, and are innovated and they can readily meet the company’s goals and missions.

Answer: estimating requirements like how much of the manpower is required for a job to be done optimally, the quality of the manpower an organization demands. Without the staffing coming into the action it would be difficult to train new/current employees. Making a product cost effective and acceptable is another challenge to staffing. Staffing also helps us in looking around the technological development and cross training which leads to the cross learning. It makes sure that the employees hired for a particular job has KSAO’s and is able enough to perform his tasks with optimality after being given required conditioning.






Political Science Class Project







Subject Area

Academic Level





Rather than preparing for self-rule, the Palestine Mandate and the policies of the mandatory authorities sowed the seeds of the Arab-Israeli conflict. Assess this statement.

In the year 1948 the rule by the British over the area that is currently being occupied by the Israel and the Palestine came to an end and it was hoped that the people within that particular area were now going to rule over themselves (Pappe, 2006). This is the area that was known as the Ottoman Empire and which had to come under the British rule after the First world War because of its role in the same. The British then had been keen on having a safe passage of their goods between them and the Indians through the Suez Canal. Choueiri (2001) notes that the Ottoman Empire had sided with the Central Empire in the course of the First World War who had been fighting against the allied forces which was made Britain among other states. After the defeat of the Ottoman Empire occupants in 1917 the area came to be divided into Palestine, Syria and Lebanon and ruled over by the British and French (Pappe, 2006). The British promised to give the Palestinians independence and also the establishment of a Jewish national region through a declaration with the then administrators of the bigger region.

With the Palestine Mandate it was hoped that the people within the area occupied by the Palestine and the Israelites will govern themselves as per the articles of the agreement that they had with the British. The Palestine Mandate was none other than a legally recognized commission that was supposed to rule over the region that had been formerly part of the larger Ottoman Empire. This particular mandate was recognized by the League of Nations but it was in effect from the time that it was signed all the way up to and including the time that it ended in May 1948 and it had given Britain powers to continue ruling the southern part of Ottoman from 1923 to 1948 when it expired (Choueiri, 2001). It is this particular mandate that had created two conflicting regions within this bigger area, that is, the Palestine region and the Jewish home that was known as Israel. In not so many words the mandate is the one that created Israel which was to be involved in a number of wars with the surrounding Arab nations.

Tension between the Jews and the Arabs inhabitants of the Ottoman can be traced back to the time when the Jews had been migrating to the area from the European regions. At that time the region had been predominantly occupied by the Arabs. Even though the British were instrumental in the creation of the Jews nation they never admitted to promising either of the parties any land. The situation that had arisen with violence and constant conflicts between the Arab original inhabitants and the newcomers was so delicate that the British did not want to get involved. The idea of consolidating the Jews within one place was thought of as a means of bringing lasting peace but it was so unfortunate that the reverse

Discuss how war was used by Iraq, Israel and the United States as a means to advance their interests in the Middle East.

A majority of nations in recent times and throughout history have had the desire to rule over other nations through forceful occupation. It is no wonder that there have been cases of one nation building up its military might and finally invading another one with the aim of taking over the others territory and in this line of reasoning Iraq, Israel and the United States are no exception when it comes to advancing their interests in the Middle East. Outlined below are accounts of a few wars that the above three have gotten involved in their quest to assert themselves in the Middle East.

Iraq has been involved in a number of wars with other countries in the Middle East mostly the ones perceived to be allies of the Western powers. It has been always seeking to assert itself as the Middle East superpower with an aim of calling the shots in the region. In addition it has wanted to use its military might to be seen as a unifying factor and a friend who will be ready to defend like-minded Arab allies (Halliday, 2005).

According to the Middle East Arab countries they all perceive Israel to be a common enemy. They are always ready to put their own differences aside to team up in fighting Israel. This explains why Israel has gone a step further to develop its military might to among the highest levels in the world. For they know too well that they have to stay ahead of their enemies and in case of any attack from any of these countries it responds very aggressively resulting in more damage than the one caused by any such attack. This is meant to send a signal to these neighbors that it is always ready to defend itself at whatever cost.

The United States has never had any interest in any particular country other than to prevent any of the countries in the Middle East from interfering with the flow of oil from this region. It is one of the heaviest oil consumers in the world and therefore it knows too well that any interference with the flow of oil from the Persian gulf will have an adverse significant effect on its economy. This explains why the US has had to go to war with Libya and Iraq within this region. In addition it has been on the forefront in championing for the use of sanctions against any other country within the region that might be seen to want to interfere with this vital interest.

According to Pappe (2006) the United States and Israel have been great friends specifically because of their common interests in the Middle East. Israel is quite important to the United States in checking any security threats within this region especially by virtue of its location and proximity to the area. Therefore the US will stop at nothing in arming, organizing peace deals between Israel and other countries in the Middle East and in some cases getting involved in the war directly, for example during the Cold War, Israel was used in spying and in checking against the spread of the Eastern political ideologies within the region (Halliday, 2005). The US spends heavily in equipping Israel with all manner of weaponry from the sophisticated missiles, sensors, drones to other advanced electronic systems to be used in the war.




Halliday, F. (2005).The Middle East in International Relations: Power, Politics and Ideology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Ch.6

Pappe, I. (2006) A History of Modern Palestine: Two Peoples One Land, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Ch.9 and Postscript

Choueiri, Y. (2001). Arab Nationalism: A History: Nation and State in the Arab World, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, Ch.6


Job Description


A Job description is an outcome of job analysis. It details the various tasks that an employee is expected to perform on that role. While doing the job analysis, its paramount that one develop the job requirements. This refers to both the skills and the knowledge that is required for an individual to perform that specific task. The job description thus describes the various tasks and activities that one is expected to handle (Sanders, 1982). As a management tool the job description is supposed to guide the management in tasks allocation. The management is able to ascertain who is specifically responsible for a certain role. This is to mean that whenever there are questions around that role, then there is someone responsible for the same. An example would be given during auditing; the job description would be used to ascertain who was supposed to do what. It results to individuals owning up certain tasks.

Through job description and process ownership, the job description, which is as a result of job analysis, ensures that the person charged with specific roles is responsible for that specific role. What this means is the job descriptions ensures that the responsible individuals after signing for it are full responsible for the specific roles they play. The effect is that they end up providing duty of care whenever they are involved in the process. They are also personally legally bound since they have signed their job descriptions. The company thus reduces the possibility of negligence when undertaking specific roles.




Sanders, M. (1982). HFS Job Description Survey: Job Dimensions, Satisfaction, and Motivation. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 682-686.